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Kluctl Documentation

The missing glue to put together large Kubernetes deployments.

1 - Core Concepts

Core Concepts of Kluctl.

These are some core concepts in Kluctl.

Kluctl project

The kluctl project defines targets. It is defined via the .kluctl.yaml configuration file.

Targets

A target defines a target cluster and a set of deployment arguments. Multiple targets can use the same cluster. Targets allow implementing multi-cluster, multi-environment, multi-customer, … deployments.

Deployments

A deployment defines which Kustomize deployments and which sub-deployments to deploy. It also controls the order of deployments.

Deployments may be configured through deployment arguments, which are typically provided via the targets but might also be provided through the CLI.

Variables

Variables are the main source of configuration. They are either loaded yaml files or directly defined inside deployments. Each variables file that is loaded has access to all the variables which were defined before, allowing complex composition of configuration.

After being loaded, variables are usable through the templating engine at all nearly all places.

Templating

All configuration files (including .kluctl.yaml and deployment.yaml) and all Kubernetes manifests involved are processed through a templating engine. The templating engine allows simple variable substitution and also complex control structures (if/else, for loops, …).

Unified CLI

The CLI of kluctl is designed to be unified/consistent as much as possible. Most commands are centered around targets and thus require you to specify the target name (via -t <target>). If you remember how one command works, it’s easy to figure out how the others work. Output from all targets based commands is also unified, allowing you to easily see what will and what did happen.

2 - Get Started

Get Started with Kluctl.

This tutorial shows you how to start using kluctl.

Before you begin

A few things must be prepared before you actually begin.

Get a Kubernetes cluster

The first step is of course: You need a kubernetes cluster. It doesn’t really matter where this cluster is hosted, if it’s a local (e.g. kind ) cluster, managed cluster, or a self-hosted cluster, kops or kubespray based, AWS, GCE, Azure, … and so on. Kluctl is completely independent of how Kubernetes is deployed and where it is hosted.

There is however a minimum Kubernetes version that must be met: 1.20.0. This is due to the heavy use of server-side apply which was not stable enough in older versions of Kubernetes.

Prepare your kubeconfig

Your local kubeconfig should be configured to have access to the target Kubernetes cluster via a dedicated context. The context name should match with the name that you want to use for the cluster from now on. Let’s assume the name is test.example.com, then you’d have to ensure that the kubeconfig context test.example.com is correctly pointing and authorized for this cluster.

See Configure Access to Multiple Clusters for documentation on how to manage multiple clusters with a single kubeconfig. Depending on the Kubernetes provisioning/deployment tooling you used, you might also be able to directly export the context into your local kubeconfig. For example, kops is able to export and merge the kubeconfig for a given cluster.

Objectives

  • Checkout one of the example Kluctl projects
  • Deploy to your local cluster
  • Change something and re-deploy

Install Kluctl

The kluctl command-line interface (CLI) is required to perform deployments. Read the installation instructions to figure out how to install it.

Use Kluctl with a plain Kustomize deployment

The simplest way to test out Kluctl is to use an existing Kustomize deployment and just test out the CLI. For example, try it with the podtato-head project :

$ git clone https://github.com/podtato-head/podtato-head.git
$ cd podtato-head/delivery/kustomize/base
$ kluctl deploy

Then try to modify something inside the Kustomize deployment and retry the kluctl deploy call.

Try out the Kluctl examples

For more advanced examples, check out the Kluctl example projects. Clone the example project found at https://github.com/kluctl/kluctl-examples

git clone https://github.com/kluctl/kluctl-examples.git

Choose one of the examples

You can choose whatever example you like from the cloned repository. We will however continue this guide by referring to the simple-helm example found in that repository. Change the current directory:

cd kluctl-examples/simple-helm

Create your local cluster

Create a local cluster with kind :

kind create cluster

This will update your kubeconfig to contain a context with the name kind-kind. By default, all examples will use the currently active context.

Deploy the example

Now run the following command to deploy the example:

kluctl deploy -t simple-helm

Kluctl will perform a diff first and then ask for your confirmation to deploy it. In this case, you should only see some objects being newly deployed.

kubectl -n simple-helm get pod

Change something and re-deploy

Now change something inside the deployment project. You could for example add replicaCount: 2 to deployment/nginx/helm-values.yml. After you have saved your changes, run the deploy command again:

kluctl deploy -t simple-helm

This time it should show your modifications in the diff. Confirm that you want to perform the deployment and then verify it:

kubectl -n simple-helm get pod

You should need 2 instances of the nginx POD running now.

Where to continue?

Continue by reading through the tutorials and by consulting the reference documentation .

3 - Installation

Installing kluctl.

Binaries

The kluctl CLI is available as a binary executable for all major platforms, the binaries can be downloaded form GitHub releases page .

Installation with Homebrew

With Homebrew for macOS and Linux:

brew install kluctl/tap/kluctl

Installation with Bash

With Bash for macOS and Linux:

curl -s https://kluctl.io/install.sh | bash

The install script does the following:

  • attempts to detect your OS
  • downloads and unpacks the release tar file in a temporary directory
  • copies the kluctl binary to /usr/local/bin
  • removes the temporary directory

Build from source

Clone the repository:

git clone https://github.com/kluctl/kluctl
cd kluctl

Build the kluctl binary (requires go >= 1.19):

make build

Run the binary:

./bin/kluctl -h

Container images

A container image with kluctl is available on GitHub:

  • ghcr.io/kluctl/kluctl:<version>

4 - Philosophy

The philosophy behind kluctl.

Kluctl tries to follow a few basic ideas and a philosophy. Project and deployments structure, as well as all commands are centered on these.

Be practical

Everything found in kluctl is based on years of experience in daily business, from the perspective of a DevOps Engineer. Kluctl prefers practicability when possible, trying to make the daily life of a DevOps Engineer as comfortable as possible.

Consistent CLI

Commands try to be as consistent as possible, making it easy to remember how they are used. For example, a diff is used the same way as a deploy. This applies to all sizes and complexities of projects. A simple/single-application deployment is used the same way as a complex one, so that it is easy to switch between projects.

Mostly declarative

Kluctl tries to be declarative whenever possible, but loosens this in some cases to stay practical. For example, hooks, barriers and waitReadiness allows you to control order of deployments in a way that a pure declarative approach would not allow.

Predictable and traceable

Always know what will happen (diff or --dry-run) and always know what happened (output changes done by a command). There is nothing worse than not knowing what’s going to happen when you deploy the current state to prod. Not knowing what happened is on the same level.

Live and let live

Kluctl tries to not interfere with any other tools or operators. It achieves this by honoring managed fields in an intelligent way. Kluctl will never force-apply anything without being told so, it will also always inform you about fields that you lost ownership of.

CLI/Client first

Kluctl is centered around a unified command line interface and will always prioritize this. This guarantees that the DevOps Engineer never looses control, even if automation and/or GitOps style operators are being used.

No scripting

Kluctl tries its best to remove the need for scripts (e.g. Bash) around deployments. It tries to remove the need for external orchestration of deployment order and/or dependencies.

5 - History

The history of kluctl.

Kluctl was created after multiple incarnations of complex multi-environment (e.g. dev, test, prod) deployments, including everything from monitoring, persistency and the actual custom services. The philosophy of these deployments was always “what belongs together, should be put together”, meaning that only as much Git repositories were involved as necessary.

The problems to solve turned out to be always the same:

  • Dozens of Helm Charts, kustomize deployments and standalone Kubernetes manifests needed to be orchestrated in a way that they work together (services need to connect to the correct databases, and so on)
  • (Encrypted) Secrets needed to be managed and orchestrated for multiple environments and clusters
  • Updates of components was always risky and required keeping track of what actually changed since the last deployment
  • Available tools (Helm, Kustomize) were not suitable to solve this on its own in an easy/natural way
  • A lot of bash scripting was required to put things together

When this got more and more complex, and the bash scripts started to become a mess (as “simple” Bash scripts always tend to become), kluctl was started from scratch. It now tries to solve the mentioned problems and provide a useful set of features (commands) in a sane and unified way.

The first versions of kluctl were written in Python, hence the use of Jinja2 templating in kluctl. With version 2.0.0, kluctl was rewritten in Go.

6 - Reference

Description of configuration files and commands

6.1 - Kluctl project

Kluctl project configuration, found in the .kluctl.yaml file.

The .kluctl.yaml is the central configuration and entry point for your deployments. It defines which targets are available to invoke commands on.

Example

An example .kluctl.yaml looks like this:

targets:
  # test cluster, dev env
  - name: dev
    context: test.example.com
    args:
      environment_name: dev
  # test cluster, test env
  - name: test
    context: test.example.com
    args:
      environment_name: test
  # prod cluster, prod env
  - name: prod
    context: prod.example.com
    args:
      environment_name: prod

args:
  - name: environment

Allowed fields

targets

Please check the targets sub-section for details.

args

A list of arguments that can or must be passed to most kluctl operations. Each of these arguments is then available in templating via the global args object.

An example looks like this:

targets:
...

args:
  - name: environment
  - name: enable_debug
    default: false
  - name: complex_arg
    default:
      my:
        nested1: arg1
        nested2: arg2

These arguments can then be used in templating, e.g. by using {{ args.environment }}.

When calling kluctl, most of the commands will then require you to specify at least -a environment=xxx and optionally -a enable_debug=true

The following sub chapters describe the fields for argument entries.

name

The name of the argument.

default

If specified, the argument becomes optional and will use the given value as default when not specified.

The default value can be an arbitrary yaml value, meaning that it can also be a nested dictionary. In that case, passing args in nested form will only set the nested value. With the above example of complex_arg, running:

kluctl deploy -t my-target -a my.nested1=override`

will only modify the value below my.nested1 and keep the value of my.nested2.

Using Kluctl without .kluctl.yaml

It’s possible to use Kluctl without any .kluctl.yaml. In that case, all commands must be used without specifying the target.

6.1.1 - targets

Required, defines targets for this kluctl project.

Specifies a list of targets for which commands can be invoked. A target puts together environment/target specific configuration and the target cluster. Multiple targets can exist which target the same cluster but with differing configuration (via args).

Each value found in the target definition is rendered with a simple Jinja2 context that only contains the target itself. The rendering process is retried 10 times until it finally succeeds, allowing you to reference the target itself in complex ways. This is especially useful when using dynamic targets .

Target entries have the following form:

targets:
...
  - name: <target_name>
    context: <context_name>
    args:
      arg1: <value1>
      arg2: <value2>
      ...
    images:
      - image: my-image
        resultImage: my-image:1.2.3
...

The following fields are allowed per target:

name

This field specifies the name of the target. The name must be unique. It is referred in all commands via the -t option.

context

This field specifies the kubectl context of the target cluster. The context must exist in the currently active kubeconfig. If this field is omitted, Kluctl will always use the currently active context.

args

This fields specifies a map of arguments to be passed to the deployment project when it is rendered. Allowed argument names are configured via deployment args .

The arguments specified in the dynamic target config have higher priority.

images

This field specifies a list of fixed images to be used by images.get_image(...) . The format is identical to the fixed images file .

The fixed images specified in the dynamic target config have higher priority.

6.1.1.1 - Dynamic Targets

Dynamically defined targets.

Targets can also be “dynamic”, meaning that additional configuration can be sourced from another git repository. This can be based on a single target repository and branch, or on a target repository and branch/ref pattern, resulting in multiple dynamic targets being created from one target definition.

Please note that a single entry in target might end up with multiple dynamic targets, meaning that the name must be made unique between these dynamic targets. This can be achieved by using templating in the name field. As an example, {{ target.targetConfig.ref }} can be used to set the target name to the branch name of the dynamic target.

Dynamic targets have the following form:

targets:
...
  - name: <dynamic_target_name>
    context: <cluster_name>
    args: ...
      arg1: <value1>
      arg2: <value2>
      ...
    targetConfig:
      project:
        url: <git-url>
      ref: <ref-name>
      refPattern: <regex-pattern>
      file: <config-file>
...

All fields known from normal targets are allowed. In addition, the targetConfig with following fields is available.

targetConfig

The presence of this field causes the target to become a dynamic target. It specifies where to look for dynamic targets and their addional configuration. It has the following form:

...
targets:
...
- name: <dynamic_target_name>
  ...
  targetConfig:
    project:
      url: <git-url>
    ref: <ref-name>
    refPattern: <regex-pattern>
...

project.url

This field specifies the git clone url of the target configuration project.

ref

This field specifies the branch or tag to use. If this field is specified, using refPattern is forbidden. This will result in one single dynamic target.

refPattern

This field specifies a regex pattern to use when looking for candidate branches and tags. If this is specified, using ref is forbidden. This will result in multiple dynamic targets. Each dynamic target will have ref set to the actual branch name it belong to. This allows using of {{ target.targetConfig.ref }} in all other target fields.

file

This field specifies the config file name to read externalized target config from.

Format of the target config

The target config file referenced in targetConfig must be of the following format:

args:
  arg1: value1
  arg2: value2
images:
  - image: registry.gitlab.com/my-group/my-project
    resultImage: registry.gitlab.com/my-group/my-project:1.1.0

args

An optional map of arguments, in the same format as in the normal target args .

The arguments specified here have higher priority.

images

An optional list of fixed images, in the same format as in the normal target images

Simple dynamic targets

A simplified form of dynamic targets is to store target config inside the same directory/project as the .kluctl.yaml. This can be done by omitting project, ref and refPattern from targetConfig and only specify file.

6.2 - Deployments

Deployments and sub-deployments.

A deployment project is collection of deployment items and sub-deployments. Deployment items are usually Kustomize deployments, but can also integrate Helm Charts .

Basic structure

The following visualization shows the basic structure of a deployment project. The entry point of every deployment project is the deployment.yaml file, which then includes further sub-deployments and kustomize deployments. It also provides some additional configuration required for multiple kluctl features to work as expected.

As can be seen, sub-deployments can include other sub-deployments, allowing you to structure the deployment project as you need.

Each level in this structure recursively adds tags to each deployed resources, allowing you to control precisely what is deployed in the future.

Some visualized files/directories have links attached, follow them to get more information.

-- project-dir/
   |-- deployment.yaml
   |-- .gitignore
   |-- kustomize-deployment1/
   |   |-- kustomization.yaml
   |   `-- resource.yaml
   |-- sub-deployment/
   |   |-- deployment.yaml
   |   |-- kustomize-deployment2/
   |   |   |-- resource1.yaml
   |   |   `-- ...
   |   |-- kustomize-deployment3/
   |   |   |-- kustomization.yaml
   |   |   |-- resource1.yaml
   |   |   |-- resource2.yaml
   |   |   |-- patch1.yaml
   |   |   `-- ...
   |   |-- kustomize-with-helm-deployment/
   |   |   |-- charts/
   |   |   |   `-- ...
   |   |   |-- kustomization.yaml
   |   |   |-- helm-chart.yaml
   |   |   `-- helm-values.yaml
   |   `-- subsub-deployment/
   |       |-- deployment.yaml
   |       |-- ... kustomize deployments
   |       `-- ... subsubsub deployments
   `-- sub-deployment/
       `-- ...

Order of deployments

Deployments are done in parallel, meaning that there are usually no order guarantees. The only way to somehow control order, is by placing barriers between kustomize deployments. You should however not overuse barriers, as they negatively impact the speed of kluctl.

Plain Kustomize

It’s also possible to use Kluctl on plain Kustomize deployments. Simply run kluctl deploy from inside the folder of your kustomization.yaml. If you also don’t have a .kluctl.yaml, you can also work without targets.

Please note that pruning and deletion is not supported in this mode.

6.2.1 - Deployments

Structure of deployment.yaml.

The deployment.yaml file is the entrypoint for the deployment project. Included sub-deployments also provide a deployment.yaml file with the same structure as the initial one.

An example deployment.yaml looks like this:

deployments:
- path: nginx
- path: my-app
- include: monitoring

commonLabels:
  my.prefix/target: "{{ target.name }}"
  my.prefix/deployment-project: my-deployment-project

The following sub-chapters describe the available fields in the deployment.yaml

deployments

deployments is a list of deployment items. Multiple deployment types are supported, which is documented further down. Individual deployments are performed in parallel, unless a barrier is encountered which causes kluctl to wait for all previous deployments to finish.

Simple deployments

Simple deployments are specified via path and are expected to be directories with Kubernetes manifests inside. Kluctl will internally generate a kustomization.yaml from these manifests and treat the deployment item the same way as it would treat a Kustomize deployment .

Example:

deployments:
- path: path/to/manifests

Kustomize deployments

When the deployment item directory specified via path contains a kustomization.yaml, Kluctl will use this file instead of generating one.

Please see Kustomize integration for more details.

Example:

deployments:
- path: path/to/deployment1
- path: path/to/deployment2
  waitReadiness: true

The path must point to a directory relative to the directory containing the deployment.yaml. Only directories that are part of the kluctl project are allowed. The directory must contain a valid kustomization.yaml.

waitReadiness is optional and if set to true instructs kluctl to wait for readiness of each individual object of the kustomize deployment. Readiness is defined in readiness .

Includes

Specifies a sub-deployment project to be included. The included sub-deployment project will inherit many properties of the parent project, e.g. tags, commonLabels and so on.

Example:

deployments:
- include: path/to/sub-deployment

The path must point to a directory relative to the directory containing the deployment.yaml. Only directories that are part of the kluctl project are allowed. The directory must contain a valid deployment.yaml.

Git includes

Specifies an external git project to be included. The project is included the same way with regular includes, except that the included project can not use/load templates from the parent project. An included project might also include further git projects.

Simple example:

deployments:
- git: git@github.com/example/example.git

This will clone the git repository at git@github.com/example/example.git, checkout the default branch and include it into the current project.

Advanced Example:

deployments:
- git:
    url: git@github.com/example/example.git
    ref: my-branch
    subDir: some/sub/dir

The url specifies the Git url to be cloned and checked out. ref is optional and specifies the branch or tag to be used. If ref is omitted, the default branch will be checked out. subDir is optional and specifies the sub directory inside the git repository to include.

Barriers

Causes kluctl to wait until all previous kustomize deployments have been applied. This is useful when upcoming deployments need the current or previous deployments to be finished beforehand. Previous deployments also include all sub-deployments from included deployments.

Example:

deployments:
- path: kustomizeDeployment1
- path: kustomizeDeployment2
- include: subDeployment1
- barrier: true
# At this point, it's ensured that kustomizeDeployment1, kustomizeDeployment2 and all sub-deployments from
# subDeployment1 are fully deployed.
- path: kustomizeDeployment3

deployments common properties

All entries in deployments can have the following common properties:

vars (deployment item)

A list of variable sets to be loaded into the templating context, which is then available in all deployment items and sub-deployments .

See templating for more details.

Example:

deployments:
- path: kustomizeDeployment1
  vars:
    - file: vars1.yaml
    - values:
        var1: value1
- path: kustomizeDeployment2
# all sub-deployments of this include will have the given variables available in their Jinj2 context.
- include: subDeployment1
  vars:
    - file: vars2.yaml

tags (deployment item)

A list of tags the deployment should have. See tags for more details. For includes, this means that all sub-deployments will get these tags applied to. If not specified, the default tags logic as described in tags is applied.

Example:

deployments:
- path: kustomizeDeployment1
  tags:
    - tag1
    - tag2
- path: kustomizeDeployment2
  tags:
    - tag3
# all sub-deployments of this include will get tag4 applied
- include: subDeployment1
  tags:
    - tag4

alwaysDeploy

Forces a deployment to be included everytime, ignoring inclusion/exclusion sets from the command line. See Deploying with tag inclusion/exclusion for details.

deployments:
- path: kustomizeDeployment1
  alwaysDeploy: true
- path: kustomizeDeployment2

Please note that alwaysDeploy will also cause kluctl render to always render the resources.

skipDeleteIfTags

Forces exclusion of a deployment whenever inclusion/exclusion tags are specified via command line. See Deleting with tag inclusion/exclusion for details.

deployments:
- path: kustomizeDeployment1
  skipDeleteIfTags: true
- path: kustomizeDeployment2

vars (deployment project)

A list of variable sets to be loaded into the templating context, which is then available in all deployment items and sub-deployments .

See templating for more details.

commonLabels

A dictionary of labels and values to be added to all resources deployed by any of the kustomize deployments in this deployment project.

This feature is mainly meant to make it possible to identify all objects in a kubernetes cluster that were once deployed through a specific deployment project.

Consider the following example deployment.yaml:

deployments:
  - path: nginx
  - include: sub-deployment1

commonLabels:
  my.prefix/target: {{ target.name }}
  my.prefix/deployment-name: my-deployment-project-name
  my.prefix/label-1: value-1
  my.prefix/label-2: value-2

Every resource deployed by the kustomize deployment nginx will now get the two provided labels attached. All included sub-deployment projects (e.g. sub-deployment1) will also recursively inherit these labels and pass them to further down.

In case an included sub-deployment project also contains commonLabels, both dictionaries of common labels are merged inside the included sub-deployment project. In case of conflicts, the included common labels override the inherited.

The root deployment’s commonLabels is also used to identify objects to be deleted when performing kluctl delete or kluctl prune operations

Please note that these commonLabels are not related to commonLabels supported in kustomization.yaml files. It was decided to not rely on this feature but instead attach labels manually to resources right before sending them to kubernetes. This is due to an implementation detail in kustomize which causes commonLabels to also be applied to label selectors, which makes otherwise editable resources read-only when it comes to commonLabels.

overrideNamespace

A string that is used as the default namespace for all kustomize deployments which don’t have a namespace set in their kustomization.yaml.

tags (deployment project)

A list of common tags which are applied to all kustomize deployments and sub-deployment includes.

See tags for more details.

ignoreForDiff

A list of objects and fields to ignore while performing diffs. Consider the following example:

deployments:
  - ...

ignoreForDiff:
  - group: apps
    kind: Deployment
    namespace: my-namespace
    name: my-deployment
    fieldPath: spec.replicas

This will remove the spec.replicas field from every resource that matches the object. group, kind, namespace and name can be omitted, which results in all objects matching. fieldPath must be a valid JSON Path . fieldPath may also be a list of JSON paths.

The JSON Path implementation used in kluctl has extended support for wildcards in field names, allowing you to also specify paths like metadata.labels.my-prefix-*.

As an alternative, annotations can be used to control diff behavior of individual resources.

6.2.2 - Kustomize Integration

How Kustomize is integrated into Kluctl

kluctl uses kustomize to render final resources. This means, that the finest/lowest level in kluctl is represented with kustomize deployments. These kustomize deployments can then perform further customization, e.g. patching and more. You can also use kustomize to easily generate ConfigMaps or secrets from files.

Generally, everything is possible via kustomization.yaml, is thus possible in kluctl.

We advise to read the kustomize reference . You can also look into the official kustomize example .

6.2.3 - Container Images

Dynamic configuration of container images.

There are usually 2 different scenarios where Container Images need to be specified:

  1. When deploying third party applications like nginx, redis, … (e.g. via the Helm integration ).
    • In this case, image versions/tags rarely change, and if they do, this is an explicit change to the deployment.
  2. When deploying your own applications.
    • In this case, image versions/tags might change very rapidly, sometimes multiple times per hour. It would be too much effort and overhead when this would be managed explicitly via your deployment. Even with Jinja2 templating, this would be hard to maintain.

kluctl offers a better solution for the second case.

Dynamic versions/tags

kluctl is able to ask the used container registry for a list of tags/versions available for an image. It then can sort the list of images via a configurable order and then use the latest image for your deployment.

It however only does this when the involved resource (e.g. a Deployment or StatefulSet) is not yet deployed. In case it is already deployed, the already deployed image will be reused to avoid undesired re-deployment/re-starting of otherwise unchanged resources.

images.get_image()

This is solved via a templating function that is available in all templates/resources. The function is part of the global images object and expects the following arguments:

images.get_image(image, latest_version)

  • image
  • latest_version
    • Configures how tags/versions are sorted and thus how the latest image is determined. Can be:
      • version.semver()
        Filters and sorts by loose semantic versioning. Versions must start with a number. It allows unlimited . inside the version. It treats versions with a suffix as less then versions without a suffix (e.g. 1.0-rc1 < 1.0). Two versions which only differ by suffix are sorted semantically.
      • version.prefix(prefix)
        Only allows tags with the given prefix and then applies the same logic as images.semver() to whatever follows right after the prefix. You can override the handling of the right part by providing suffix=xxx, while xxx is another version filter, e.g. `version.prefix(“master-”, suffix=version.number())
      • version.number()
        Only allows plain numbers as version numbers sorts them accordingly.
      • version.regex(regex)
        Only allows versions/tags that match the given regex. Sorting is done the same way as in version.semver(), except that versions do not necessarily need to start with a number.

The mentioned version filters must be specified as strings. For example,

images.get_version("my-image", "prefix('master-', suffix=number())").

If no version_filter is specified, then it defaults to "semver()".

Example deployment:

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: my-deployment
spec:
  template:
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: c1
        image: "{{ images.get_image('registry.gitlab.com/my-group/my-project') }}"

Always using the latest images

If you want to use the latest image no matter if an older version is already deployed, use the -u flag to your deploy, diff or list-images commands.

You can restrict updating to individual images by using -I/--include-tag. This is useful when using CI/CD for example, where you often want to perform a deployment that only updates a single application/service from your large deployment.

Fixed images via CLI

The described images.get_image logic however leads to a loosely defined state on your target cluster/environment. This might be fine in a CI/CD environment, but might be undesired when deploying to production. In that case, it might be desirable to explicitly define which versions need to be deployed.

To achieve this, you can use the -F FIXED_IMAGE argument . FIXED_IMAGE must be in the form of -F image<:namespace:deployment:container>=result. For example, to pin the image registry.gitlab.com/my-group/my-project to the tag 1.1.2 you’d have to specify -F registry.gitlab.com/my-group/my-project=registry.gitlab.com/my-group/my-project:1.1.2.

Fixed images via a yaml file

As an alternative to specifying each fixed image via CLI (--fixed-images-file=<file>), you can also specify a single yaml file via CLI which then contains a list of entries that define image/deployment -> imageResult mappings.

An example fixed-images files looks like this:

images:
  - image: registry.gitlab.com/my-group/my-project
    resultImage: registry.gitlab.com/my-group/my-project:1.1.0
  - image: registry.gitlab.com/my-group/my-project2
    resultImage: registry.gitlab.com/my-group/my-project2:2.0.0
  - deployment: StatefulSet/my-sts
    resultImage: registry.gitlab.com/my-group/my-project3:1.0.0

You can also take an existing deployment and export the already deployed image versions into a fixed-images file by using the list-images command. It will produce a compatible fixed-images file based on the calls to images.get_image if a deployment would be performed with the given arguments. The result of that call is quite expressive, as it contains all the information gathered while images were collected. Use --simple to only return a list with image -> resultImage mappings.

Supported image registries and authentication

All v2 API based image registries are supported, including the Docker Hub, Gitlab, and many more. Private registries will need credentials to be setup correctly. This can be done by locally logging in via docker login <registry> or by specifying the following environment variables:

Simply set the following environment variables to pass credentials to you private repository:

  1. KLUCTL_REGISTRY_HOST=registry.example.com
  2. KLUCTL_REGISTRY_USERNAME=username
  3. KLUCTL_REGISTRY_PASSWORD=password

You can also pass credentials for more registries by adding an index to the environment variables, e.g. “KLUCTL_REGISTRY_1_HOST=registry.gitlab.com”

In case your registry uses self-signed TLS certificates, it is currently required to disable TLS verification for these. You can do this via KLUCTL_REGISTRY_TLSVERIFY=1/KLUCTL_REGISTRY_<idx>_TLSVERIFY=1 for the corresponding KLUCTL_REGISTRY_HOST/KLUCTL_REGISTRY_<idx>_HOST or by globally disabling it via KLUCTL_REGISTRY_DEFAULT_TLSVERIFY=1.

6.2.4 - Helm Integration

How Helm is integrated into Kluctl.

kluctl offers a simple-to-use Helm integration, which allows you to reuse many common third-party Helm Charts.

The integration is split into 2 parts/steps/layers. The first is the management and pulling of the Helm Charts, while the second part handles configuration/customization and deployment of the chart.

It is recommended to pre-pull Helm Charts with kluctl helm-pull , which will store the pulled charts inside .helm-charts of the project directory. It is however also possible (but not recommended) to skip the pre-pulling phase and let kluctl pull Charts on-demand.

When pre-pulling Helm Charts, you can also add the resulting Chart contents into version control. This is actually recommended as it ensures that the deployment will always behave the same. It also allows pull-request based reviews on third-party Helm Charts.

How it works

Helm charts are not directly installed via Helm. Instead, kluctl renders the Helm Chart into a single file and then hands over the rendered yaml to kustomize . Rendering is done in combination with a provided helm-values.yaml, which contains the necessary values to configure the Helm Chart.

The resulting rendered yaml is then referred by your kustomization.yaml, from which point on the kustomize integration takes over. This means, that you can perform all desired customization (patches, namespace override, …) as if you provided your own resources via yaml files.

Helm hooks

Helm Hooks are implemented by mapping them to kluctl hooks , based on the following mapping table:

Helm hook kluctl hook
pre-install pre-deploy-initial
post-install post-deploy-initial
pre-delete Not supported
post-delete Not supported
pre-upgrade pre-deploy-upgrade
post-upgrade post-deploy-upgrade
pre-rollback Not supported
post-rollback Not supported
test Not supported

Please note that this is a best effort approach and not 100% compatible to how Helm would run hooks.

helm-chart.yaml

The helm-chart.yaml defines where to get the chart from, which version should be pulled, the rendered output file name, and a few more Helm options. After this file is added to your project, you need to invoke the helm-pull command to pull the Helm Chart into your local project. It is advised to put the pulled Helm Chart into version control, so that deployments will always be based on the exact same Chart (Helm does not guarantee this when pulling).

Example helm-chart.yaml:

helmChart:
  repo: https://charts.bitnami.com/bitnami
  chartName: redis
  chartVersion: 12.1.1
  updateConstraints: ~12.1.0
  skipUpdate: false
  releaseName: redis-cache
  namespace: "{{ my.jinja2.var }}"
  output: helm-rendered.yaml # this is optional

When running the helm-pull command, it will search for all helm-chart.yaml files in your project and then pull the chart from the specified repository with the specified version. The pull chart will then be located in the sub-directory charts below the same directory as the helm-chart.yaml

The same filename that was specified in output must then be referred in a kustomization.yaml as a normal local resource. If output is omitted, the default value helm-rendered.yaml is used and must also be referenced in kustomization.yaml.

helmChart inside helm-chart.yaml supports the following fields:

repo

The url to the Helm repository where the Helm Chart is located. You can use hub.helm.sh to search for repositories and charts and then use the repos found there.

OCI based repositories are also supported, for example:

helmChart:
  repo: oci://r.myreg.io/mycharts/pepper
  chartName: pepper
  chartVersion: 1.2.3
  releaseName: pepper
  namespace: pepper

path

As alternative to repo, you can also specify path. The path must point to a local Helm Chart that is relative to the helm-chart.yaml. The local Chart must reside in your Kluctl project.

When path is specified, repo, chartName, chartVersion and updateContrainsts are not allowed.

chartName

The name of the chart that can be found in the repository.

chartVersion

The version of the chart. Must be a valid semantic version.

updateConstraints

Specifies version constraints to be used when running helm-update . See Checking Version Constraints for details on the supported syntax.

If omitted, Kluctl will filter out pre-releases by default. Use a updateConstraints like ~1.2.3-0 to enable pre-releases.

skipUpdate

Skip this Helm Chart when the helm-update command is called. If omitted, defaults to false.

releaseName

The name of the Helm Release.

namespace

The namespace that this Helm Chart is going to be deployed to. Please note that this should match the namespace that you’re actually deploying the kustomize deployment to. This means, that either namespace in kustomization.yaml or overrideNamespace in deployment.yaml should match the namespace given here. The namespace should also be existing already at the point in time when the kustomize deployment is deployed.

output

This is the file name into which the Helm Chart is rendered into. Your kustomization.yaml should include this same file. The file should not be existing in your project, as it is created on-the-fly while deploying.

skipCRDs

If set to true, kluctl will pass --skip-crds to Helm when rendering the deployment. If set to false (which is the default), kluctl will pass --include-crds to Helm.

helm-values.yaml

This file should be present when you need to pass custom Helm Value to Helm while rendering the deployment. Please read the documentation of the used Helm Charts for details on what is supported.

Updates to helm-charts

In case a Helm Chart needs to be updated, you can either do this manually by replacing the chartVersion value in helm-chart.yaml and the calling the helm-pull command or by simply invoking helm-update with --upgrade and/or --commit being set.

Private Chart Repositories

It is also possible to use private chart repositories. There are currently two options to provide Helm Repository credentials to Kluctl.

Use helm repo add --username xxx --password xxx before

Kluctl will try to find known repositories that are managed by the Helm CLI and then try to reuse the credentials of these. The repositories are identified by the URL of the repository, so it doesn’t matter what name you used when you added the repository to Helm. The same method can be used for client certificate based authentication (--key-file in helm repo add).

Use the –username/–password arguments in kluctl helm-pull

See the helm-pull command . You can control repository credentials via --username, --password and --key-file. Each argument must be in the form credentialsId:value, where the credentialsId must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml. Example:

helmChart:
  repo: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/example/private-helm-repo/main/
  credentialsId: private-helm-repo
  chartName: my-chart
  chartVersion: 1.2.3
  releaseName: my-chart
  namespace: default

When credentialsId is specified, Kluctl will require you to specify --username=private-helm-repo:my-username and --password=private-helm-repo:my-password. You can also specify a client-side certificate instead via --key-file=private-helm-repo:/path/to/cert.

Multiple Helm Charts can use the same credentialsId.

Environment variables can also be used instead of arguments. See Environment Variables for details.

Templating

Both helm-chart.yaml and helm-values.yaml are rendered by the templating engine before they are actually used. This means, that you can use all available Jinja2 variables at that point, which can for example be seen in the above helm-chart.yaml example for the namespace.

There is however one exception that leads to a small limitation. When helm-pull reads the helm-chart.yaml, it does NOT render the file via the templating engine. This is because it can not know how to properly render the template as it does have no information about targets (there are no -t arguments set) at that point.

This exception leads to the limitation that the helm-chart.yaml MUST be valid yaml even in case it is not rendered via the templating engine. This makes using control statements (if/for/…) impossible in this file. It also makes it a requirement to use quotes around values that contain templates (e.g. the namespace in the above example).

helm-values.yaml is not subject to these limitations as it is only interpreted while deploying.

6.2.5 - SOPS Integration

How SOPS is integrated into Kluctl

Kluctl integrates natively with SOPS . Kluctl is able to decrypt all resources referenced by Kustomize deployment items (including simple deployments ). In addition, Kluctl will also decrypt all variable sources of the types file and git .

Kluctl assumes that you have setup sops as usual so that it knows how to decrypt these files.

Only encrypting Secrets’s data

To only encrypt the data and stringData fields of Kubernetes secrets, use a .sops.yaml configuration file that encrypted_regex to filter encrypted fields:

creation_rules:
  - path_regex: .*.yaml
    encrypted_regex: ^(data|stringData)$

Combining templating and SOPS

As an alternative, you can split secret values and the resulting Kubernetes resources into two different places and then use templating to use the secret values wherever needed. Example:

Write the following content into secrets/my-secrets.yaml:

secrets:
  mySecret: secret-value

And encrypt it with SOPS:

$ sops -e -i secrets/my-secrets.yaml

Add this variables source to one of your deployments :

vars:
  - file: secrets/my-secrets.yaml

deployments:
- ...

Then, in one of your deployment items define the following Secret:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  name: my-secret
  namespace: default
stringData:
  secret: "{{ secrets.mySecret }}"

6.2.6 - Hooks

Kluctl hooks.

Kluctl supports hooks in a similar fashion as known from Helm Charts. Hooks are executed/deployed before and/or after the actual deployment of a kustomize deployment.

To mark a resource as a hook, add the kluctl.io/hook annotation to a resource. The value of the annotation must be a comma separated list of hook names. Possible value are described in the next chapter.

Hook types

Hook Type Description
pre-deploy-initial Executed right before the initial deployment is performed.
post-deploy-initial Executed right after the initial deployment is performed.
pre-deploy-upgrade Executed right before a non-initial deployment is performed.
post-deploy-upgrade Executed right after a non-initial deployment is performed.
pre-deploy Executed right before any (initial and non-initial) deployment is performed.
post-deploy Executed right after any (initial and non-initial) deployment is performed.

A deployment is considered to be an “initial” deployment if none of the resources related to the current kustomize deployment are found on the cluster at the time of deployment.

If you need to execute hooks for every deployment, independent of its “initial” state, use pre-deploy-initial,pre-deploy to indicate that it should be executed all the time.

Hook deletion

Hook resources are by default deleted right before creation (if they already existed before). This behavior can be changed by setting the kluctl.io/hook-delete-policy to a comma separated list of the following values:

Policy Description
before-hook-creation The default behavior, which means that the hook resource is deleted right before (re-)creation.
hook-succeeded Delete the hook resource directly after it got “ready”
hook-failed Delete the hook resource when it failed to get “ready”

Hook readiness

After each deployment/execution of the hooks that belong to a deployment stage (before/after deployment), kluctl waits for the hook resources to become “ready”. Readiness is defined here .

It is possible to disable waiting for hook readiness by setting the annotation kluctl.io/hook-wait to “false”.

6.2.7 - Readiness

Definition of readiness.

There are multiple places where kluctl can wait for “readiness” of resources, e.g. for hooks or when waitReadiness is specified on a deployment item. Readiness depends on the resource kind, e.g. for a Job, kluctl would wait until it finishes successfully.

6.2.8 - Tags

Every kustomize deployment has a set of tags assigned to it. These tags are defined in multiple places, which is documented in deployment.yaml . Look for the tags field, which is available in multiple places per deployment project.

Tags are useful when only one or more specific kustomize deployments need to be deployed or deleted.

Default tags

deployment items in deployment projects can have an optional list of tags assigned.

If this list is completely omitted, one single entry is added by default. This single entry equals to the last element of the path in the deployments entry.

Consider the following example:

deployments:
  - path: nginx
  - path: some/subdir

In this example, two kustomize deployments are defined. The first would get the tag nginx while the second would get the tag subdir.

In most cases this heuristic is enough to get proper tags with which you can work. It might however lead to strange or even conflicting tags (e.g. subdir is really a bad tag), in which case you’d have to explicitly set tags.

Tag inheritance

Deployment projects and deployments items inherit the tags of their parents. For example, if a deployment project has a tags property defined, all deployments entries would inherit all these tags. Also, the sub-deployment projects included via deployment items of type include inherit the tags of the deployment project. These included sub-deployments also inherit the tags specified by the deployment item itself.

Consider the following example deployment.yaml:

deployments:
  - include: sub-deployment1
    tags:
      - tag1
      - tag2
  - include: sub-deployment2
    tags:
      - tag3
      - tag4
  - include: subdir/subsub

Any kustomize deployment found in sub-deployment1 would now inherit tag1 and tag2. If sub-deployment1 performs any further includes, these would also inherit these two tags. Inheriting is additive and recursive.

The last sub-deployment project in the example is subject to the same default-tags logic as described in Default tags , meaning that it will get the default tag subsub.

Deploying with tag inclusion/exclusion

Special care needs to be taken when trying to deploy only a specific part of your deployment which requires some base resources to be deployed as well.

Imagine a large deployment is able to deploy 10 applications, but you only want to deploy one of them. When using tags to achieve this, there might be some base resources (e.g. Namespaces) which are needed no matter if everything or just this single application is deployed. In that case, you’d need to set alwaysDeploy to true.

Deleting with tag inclusion/exclusion

Also, in most cases, even more special care has to be taken for the same types of resources as decribed before.

Imagine a kustomize deployment being responsible for namespaces deployments. If you now want to delete everything except deployments that have the persistency tag assigned, the exclusion logic would NOT exclude deletion of the namespace. This would ultimately lead to everything being deleted, and the exclusion tag having no effect.

In such a case, you’d need to set skipDeleteIfTags to true as well.

In most cases, setting alwaysDeploy to true also requires setting skipDeleteIfTags to true.

6.2.9 - Annotations

Annotations usable in Kubernetes resources.

6.2.9.1 - All resources

Annotations on all resources

The following annotations control the behavior of the deploy and related commands.

Control deploy behavior

The following annotations control deploy behavior, especially in regard to conflict resolution.

kluctl.io/delete

If set to “true”, the resource will be deleted at deployment time. Kluctl will not emit an error in case the resource does not exist. A resource with this annotation does not have to be complete/valid as it is never sent to the Kubernetes api server.

kluctl.io/force-apply

If set to “true”, the whole resource will be force-applied, meaning that all fields will be overwritten in case of field manager conflicts.

kluctl.io/force-apply-field

Specifies a JSON Path for fields that should be force-applied. Matching fields will be overwritten in case of field manager conflicts.

If more than one field needs to be specified, add -xxx to the annotation key, where xxx is an arbitrary number.

kluctl.io/ignore-conflicts

If set to “true”, the whole all fields of the object are going to be ignored when conflicts arise. This effectively disables the warnings that are shown when field ownership is lost.

kluctl.io/ignore-conflicts-field

Specifies a JSON Path for fields that should be ignored when conflicts arise. This effectively disables the warnings that are shown when field ownership is lost.

If more than one field needs to be specified, add -xxx to the annotation key, where xxx is an arbitrary number.

Control deletion/pruning

The following annotations control how delete/prune is behaving.

kluctl.io/skip-delete

If set to “true”, the annotated resource will not be deleted when delete or prune is called.

kluctl.io/skip-delete-if-tags

If set to “true”, the annotated resource will not be deleted when delete or prune is called and inclusion/exclusion tags are used at the same time.

This tag is especially useful and required on resources that would otherwise cause cascaded deletions of resources that do not match the specified inclusion/exclusion tags. Namespaces are the most prominent example of such resources, as they most likely don’t match exclusion tags, but cascaded deletion would still cause deletion of the excluded resources.

Control diff behavior

The following annotations control how diffs are performed.

kluctl.io/diff-name

This annotation will override the name of the object when looking for the in-cluster version of an object used for diffs. This is useful when you are forced to use new names for the same objects whenever the content changes, e.g. for all kinds of immutable resource types.

Example (filename job.yaml):

apiVersion: batch/v1
kind: Job
metadata:
  name: myjob-{{ load_sha256("job.yaml", 6) }}
  annotations:
    kluctl.io/diff-name: myjob
spec:
  template:
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: hello
        image: busybox
        command: ["sh",  "-c", "echo hello"]
      restartPolicy: Never

Without the kluctl.io/diff-name annotation, any change to the job.yaml would be treated as a new object in resulting diffs from various commands. This is due to the inclusion of the file hash in the job name. This would make it very hard to figure out what exactly changed in an object.

With the kluctl.io/diff-name annotation, kluctl will pick an existing job from the cluster with the same diff-name and use it for the diff, making it a lot easier to analyze changes. If multiple objects match, the one with the youngest creationTimestamp is chosen.

Please note that this will not cause old objects (with the same diff-name) to be prunes. You still have to regularely prune the deployment.

kluctl.io/ignore-diff

If set to “true”, the whole resource will be ignored while calculating diffs.

kluctl.io/ignore-diff-field

Specifies a JSON Path for fields that should be ignored while calculating diffs.

If more than one field needs to be specified, add -xxx to the annotation key, where xxx is an arbitrary number.

6.2.9.2 - Hooks

Annotations on hooks

The following annotations control hook execution

See hooks for more details.

kluctl.io/hook

Declares a resource to be a hook, which is deployed/executed as described in hooks . The value of the annotation determines when the hook is deployed/executed.

kluctl.io/hook-weight

Specifies a weight for the hook, used to determine deployment/execution order.

kluctl.io/hook-delete-policy

Defines when to delete the hook resource.

kluctl.io/hook-wait

Defines whether kluctl should wait for hook-completion.

6.2.9.3 - Validation

Annotations to control validation

The following annotations influence the validate command.

validate-result.kluctl.io/xxx

If this annotation is found on a resource that is checked while validation, the key and the value of the annotation are added to the validation result, which is then returned by the validate command.

The annotation key is dynamic, meaning that all annotations that begin with validate-result.kluctl.io/ are taken into account.

kluctl.io/validate-ignore

If this annotation is set to true, the object will be ignored while kluctl validate is run.

6.2.9.4 - Kustomize

Annotations on the kustomization.yaml resource

Even though the kustomization.yaml from Kustomize deployments are not really Kubernetes resources (as they are not really deployed), they have the same structure as Kubernetes resources. This also means that the kustomization.yaml can define metadata and annotations. Through these annotations, additional behavior on the deployment can be controlled.

Example:

apiVersion: kustomize.config.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: Kustomization

metadata:
  annotations:
    kluctl.io/barrier: "true"
    kluctl.io/wait-readiness: "true"

resources:
  - deployment.yaml

kluctl.io/barrier

If set to true, kluctl will wait for all previous objects to be applied (but not necessarily ready). This has the same effect as barrier from deployment projects.

kluctl.io/wait-readiness

If set to true, kluctl will wait for readiness of all objects from this kustomization project. Readiness is defined the same as in hook readiness .

6.3 - Templating

Templating Engine.

kluctl uses a Jinja2 Templating engine to pre-process/render every involved configuration file and resource before actually interpreting it. Only files that are explicitly excluded via .templateignore files are not rendered via Jinja2.

Generally, everything that is possible with Jinja2 is possible in kluctl configuration/resources. Please read into the Jinja2 documentation to understand what exactly is possible and how to use it.

.templateignore

In some cases it is required to exclude specific files from templating, for example when the contents conflict with the used template engine (e.g. Go templates conflict with Jinja2 and cause errors). In such cases, you can place a .templateignore beside the excluded files or into a parent folder of it. The contents/format of the .templateignore file is the same as you would use in a .gitignore file.

Includes and imports

Standard Jinja2 includes and imports can be used in all templates.

The path given to include/import is searched in the directory of the root template and all it’s parent directories up until the project root. Please note that the search path is not altered in included templates, meaning that it will always search in the same directories even if an include happens inside a file that was included as well.

To include/import a file relative to the currently rendered file (which is not necessarily the root template), prefix the path with ./, e.g. use {% include "./my-relative-file.j2" %}".

Macros

Jinja2 macros are fully supported. When writing macros that produce yaml resources, you must use the --- yaml separator in case you want to produce multiple resources in one go.

Why no Go Templating

kluctl started as a python project and was then migrated to be a Go project. In the python world, Jinja2 is the obvious choice when it comes to templating. In the Go world, of course Go Templates would be the first choice.

When the migration to Go was performed, it was a conscious and opinionated decision to stick with Jinja2 templating. The reason is that I (@codablock) believe that Go Templates are hard to read and write and at the same time quite limited in their features (without extensive work). It never felt natural to write Go Templates.

This “feeling” was confirmed by multiple users of kluctl when it started and users described as “relieving” to not be forced to use Go Templates.

The above is my personal experience and opinion. I’m still quite open for contributions in regard to Go Templating support, as long as Jinja2 support is kept.

6.3.1 - Predefined Variables

Available predefined variables.

There are multiple variables available which are pre-defined by kluctl. These are:

args

This is a dictionary of arguments given via command line. It contains every argument defined in deployment args .

target

This is the target definition of the currently processed target. It contains all values found in the target definition , for example target.name.

images

This global object provides the dynamic images features described in images .

version

This global object defines latest version filters for images.get_image(...). See images for details.

6.3.2 - Variable Sources

Available variable sources.

There are multiple places in deployment projects (deployment.yaml) where additional variables can be loaded into future Jinja2 contexts.

The first place where vars can be specified is the deployment root, as documented here . These vars are visible for all deployments inside the deployment project, including sub-deployments from includes.

The second place to specify variables is in the deployment items, as documented here .

The variables loaded for each entry in vars are not available inside the deployment.yaml file itself. However, each entry in vars can use all variables defined before that specific entry is processed. Consider the following example.

vars:
- file: vars1.yaml
- file: vars2.yaml
- file: optional-vars.yaml
  ignoreMissing: true

vars2.yaml can now use variables that are defined in vars1.yaml. At all times, variables defined by parents of the current sub-deployment project can be used in the current vars file.

Each variable source can have the optional field ignoreMissing set to true, causing Kluctl to ignore if the source can not be found.

Different types of vars entries are possible:

file

This loads variables from a yaml file. Assume the following yaml file with the name vars1.yaml:

my_vars:
  a: 1
  b: "b"
  c:
    - l1
    - l2

This file can be loaded via:

vars:
  - file: vars1.yaml

After which all included deployments and sub-deployments can use the jinja2 variables from vars1.yaml.

Kluctl also supports variable files encrypted with SOPS . See the sops integration integration for more details.

values

An inline definition of variables. Example:

vars:
  - values:
      a: 1
      b: c

These variables can then be used in all deployments and sub-deployments.

git

This loads variables from a git repository. Example:

vars:
  - git:
      url: ssh://git@github.com/example/repo.git
      ref: my-branch
      path: path/to/vars.yaml

Kluctl also supports variable files encrypted with SOPS . See the sops integration integration for more details.

clusterConfigMap

Loads a configmap from the target’s cluster and loads the specified key’s value as a yaml file into the jinja2 variables context.

Assume the following configmap to be deployed to the target cluster:

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: my-vars
  namespace: my-namespace
data:
  vars: |
    a: 1
    b: "b"
    c:
      - l1
      - l2    

This configmap can be loaded via:

vars:
  - clusterConfigMap:
      name: my-vars
      namespace: my-namespace
      key: vars

It assumes that the configmap is already deployed before the kluctl deployment happens. This might for example be useful to store meta information about the cluster itself and then make it available to kluctl deployments.

clusterSecret

Same as clusterConfigMap, but for secrets.

http

The http variables source allows to load variables from an arbitrary HTTP resource by performing a GET (or any other configured HTTP method) on the URL. Example:

vars:
  - http:
      url: https://example.com/path/to/my/vars

The above source will load a variables file from the given URL. The file is expected to be in yaml or json format.

The following additional properties are supported for http sources:

method

Specifies the HTTP method to be used when requesting the given resource. Defaults to GET.

body

The body to send along with the request. If not specified, nothing is sent.

headers

A map of key/values pairs representing the header entries to be added to the request. If not specified, nothing is added.

jsonPath

Can be used to select a nested element from the yaml/json document returned by the HTTP request. This is useful in case some REST api is used which does not directly return the variables file. Example:

vars:
  - http:
      url: https://example.com/path/to/my/vars
      jsonPath: $[0].data

The above example would successfully use the following json document as variables source:

[{"data": {"vars": {"var1": "value1"}}}]

Authentication

Kluctl currently supports BASIC and NTLM authentication. It will prompt for credentials when needed.

awsSecretsManager

AWS Secrets Manager integration. Loads a variables YAML from an AWS Secrets Manager secret. The secret can either be specified via an ARN or via a secretName and region combination. An existing AWS config profile can also be specified.

The secrets stored in AWS Secrets manager must contain a valid yaml or json file.

Example using an ARN:

vars:
  - awsSecretsManager:
      secretName: arn:aws:secretsmanager:eu-central-1:12345678:secret:secret-name-XYZ
      profile: my-prod-profile

Example using a secret name and region:

vars:
  - awsSecretsManager:
      secretName: secret-name
      region: eu-central-1
      profile: my-prod-profile

The advantage of the latter is that the auto-generated suffix in the ARN (which might not be known at the time of writing the configuration) doesn’t have to be specified.

vault

Vault by HashiCorp with Tokens authentication integration. The address and the path to the secret can be configured. The implementation was tested with KV Secrets Engine.

Example using vault:

vars:
  - vault:
      address: http://localhost:8200
      path: secret/data/simple

Before deploying please make sure that you have access to vault. You can do this for example by setting the environment variable VAULT_TOKEN.

systemEnvVars

Load variables from environment variables. Children of systemEnvVars can be arbitrary yaml, e.g. dictionaries or lists. The leaf values are used to get a value from the system environment.

Example:

vars:
- systemEnvVars:
    var1: ENV_VAR_NAME1
    someDict:
      var2: ENV_VAR_NAME2
    someList:
      - var3: ENV_VAR_NAME3

The above example will make 3 variables available: var1, someDict.var2 and someList[0].var3, each having the values of the environment variables specified by the leaf values.

All specified environment variables must be set before calling kluctl unless a default value is set. Default values can be set by using the ENV_VAR_NAME:default-value form.

Example:

vars:
- systemEnvVars:
    var1: ENV_VAR_NAME4:defaultValue

The above example will set the variable var1 to defaultValue in case ENV_VAR_NAME4 is not set.

All values retrieved from environment variables (or specified as default values) will be treated as YAML, meaning that integers and booleans will be treated as integers/booleans. If you want to enforce strings, encapsulate the values in quotes.

Example:

vars:
- systemEnvVars:
    var1: ENV_VAR_NAME5:'true'

The above example will treat true as a string instead of a boolean. When the environment variable is set outside kluctl, it should also contain the quotes. Please note that your shell might require escaping to properly pass quotes.

6.3.3 - Filters

Available filters.

In addition to the builtin Jinja2 filters , kluctl provides a few additional filters:

b64encode

Encodes the input value as base64. Example: {{ "test" | b64encode }} will result in dGVzdA==.

b64decode

Decodes an input base64 encoded string. Example {{ my.source.var | b64decode }}.

from_yaml

Parses a yaml string and returns an object. Please note that json is valid yaml, meaning that you can also use this filter to parse json.

to_yaml

Converts a variable/object into its yaml representation. Please note that in most cases the resulting string will not be properly indented, which will require you to also use the indent filter. Example:

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: my-config
data:
  config.yaml: |
        {{ my_config | to_yaml | indent(4) }}

to_json

Same as to_yaml, but with json as output. Please note that json is always valid yaml, meaning that you can also use to_json in yaml files. Consider the following example:

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: my-deployment
spec:
  template:
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: c1
        image: my-image
        env: {{ my_list_of_env_entries | to_json }}

This would render json into a yaml file, which is still a valid yaml file. Compare this to how this would have to be solved with to_yaml:

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: my-deployment
spec:
  template:
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: c1
        image: my-image
        env:
          {{ my_list_of_env_entries | to_yaml | indent(10) }}

The required indention filter is the part that makes this error-prone and hard to maintain. Consider using to_json whenever you can.

render

Renders the input string with the current Jinja2 context. Example:

{% set a="{{ my_var }}" %}
{{ a | render }}

slugify

Slugify a string based on python-slugify .

6.3.4 - Functions

Available functions.

In addition to the provided builtin global functions , kluctl also provides a few global functions:

load_template(file)

Loads the given file into memory, renders it with the current Jinja2 context and then returns it as a string. Example:

{% set a=load_template('file.yaml') %}
{{ a }}

load_template uses the same path searching rules as described in includes/imports .

load_sha256(file, digest_len)

Loads the given file into memory, renders it and calculates the sha256 hash of the result.

The filename given to load_sha256 is treated the same as in load_template. Recursive loading/calculating of hashes is allowed and is solved by replacing load_sha256 invocations with currently loaded templates with dummy strings. This also allows to calculate the hash of the currently rendered template, for example:

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: my-config-{{ load_sha256("configmap.yaml") }}
data:

digest_len is an optional parameter that allows to limit the length of the returned hex digest.

get_var(field_path, default)

Convenience method to navigate through the current context variables via a JSON Path . Let’s assume you currently have these variables defined (e.g. via vars ):

my:
  deep:
    var: value

Then {{ get_var('my.deep.var', 'my-default') }} would return value. When any of the elements inside the field path are non-existent, the given default value is returned instead.

The field_path parameter can also be a list of pathes, which are then tried one after the another, returning the first result that gives a value that is not None. For example, {{ get_var(['non.existing.var', my.deep.var'], 'my-default') }} would also return value.

merge_dict(d1, d2)

Clones d1 and then recursively merges d2 into it and returns the result. Values inside d2 will override values in d1.

update_dict(d1, d2)

Same as merge_dict, but merging is performed in-place into d1.

raise(msg)

Raises a python exception with the given message. This causes the current command to abort.

debug_print(msg)

Prints a line to stderr.

time.now()

Returns the current time. The returned object has the following members:

member description
t.as_timezone(tz) Converts and returns the time t in the given timezone. Example:
{{ time.now().as_timezone("Europe/Berlin") }}
t.weekday() Returns the time’s weekday. 0 means Monday and 6 means Sunday.
t.hour() Returns the time’s hour from 0-23.
t.minute() Returns the time’s minute from 0-59.
t.second() Returns the time’s second from 0-59.
t.nanosecond() Returns the time’s nanosecond from 0-999999999.
t + delta Adds a delta to t. Example: {{ time.now() + time.second * 10 }}
t - delta Subtracts a delta from t. Example: {{ time.now() - time.second * 10 }}
t1 < t2
t1 >= t2
Time objects can be compared to other time objects. Example:
{% if time.now() < time.parse_iso("2022-10-01T10:00") %}...{% endif %}
All logical operators are supported.

time.utcnow()

Returns the current time in UTC. The object has the same members as described in time.now() .

time.parse_iso(iso_time_str)

Parse the given string and return a time object. The string must be in ISO time. The object has the same members as described in time.now() .

time.second, time.minute, time.hour

Represents a time delta to be used with t + delta and t - delta. Example

{{ time.now() + time.minute * 10 }}

6.4 - Commands

Description of available commands.

kluctl offers a unified command line interface that allows to standardize all your deployments. Every project, no matter how different it is from other projects, is managed the same way.

You can always call kluctl --help or kluctl <command> --help for a help prompt.

Individual commands are documented in sub-sections.

6.4.1 - Common Arguments

Common arguments

A few sets of arguments are common between multiple commands. These arguments are still part of the command itself and must be placed after the command name.

Global arguments

These arguments are available for all commands.

Global arguments:
      --cpu-profile string   Enable CPU profiling and write the result to the given path
      --debug                Enable debug logging
      --no-color             Disable colored output
      --no-update-check      Disable update check on startup

Project arguments

These arguments are available for all commands that are based on a Kluctl project. They control where and how to load the kluctl project and deployment project.

Project arguments:
  Define where and how to load the kluctl project and its components from.

  -a, --arg stringArray                      Passes a template argument in the form of name=value. Nested args can
                                             be set with the '-a my.nested.arg=value' syntax. Values are
                                             interpreted as yaml values, meaning that 'true' and 'false' will lead
                                             to boolean values and numbers will be treated as numbers. Use quotes
                                             if you want these to be treated as strings. If the value starts with
                                             @, it is treated as a file, meaning that the contents of the file
                                             will be loaded and treated as yaml.
      --args-from-file stringArray           Loads a yaml file and makes it available as arguments, meaning that
                                             they will be available thought the global 'args' variable.
      --context string                       Overrides the context name specified in the target. If the selected
                                             target does not specify a context or the no-name target is used,
                                             --context will override the currently active context.
      --git-cache-update-interval duration   Specify the time to wait between git cache updates. Defaults to not
                                             wait at all and always updating caches.
      --local-git-override stringArray       Specify a local git override in the form of
                                             'github.com:my-org/my-repo=/local/path/to/override'. This will cause
                                             kluctl to not use git to clone for the specified repository but
                                             instead use the local directory. This is useful in case you need to
                                             test out changes in external git repositories without pushing them.
                                             To only override a single branch of the repo, use
                                             'github.com:my-org/my-repo:my-branch=/local/path/to/override'
  -c, --project-config existingfile          Location of the .kluctl.yaml config file. Defaults to
                                             $PROJECT/.kluctl.yaml
      --project-dir existingdir              Specify the project directory. Defaults to the current working directory.
  -t, --target string                        Target name to run command for. Target must exist in .kluctl.yaml.
  -T, --target-name-override string          Overrides the target name. If -t is used at the same time, then the
                                             target will be looked up based on -t <name> and then renamed to the
                                             value of -T. If no target is specified via -t, then the no-name
                                             target is renamed to the value of -T.
      --timeout duration                     Specify timeout for all operations, including loading of the project,
                                             all external api calls and waiting for readiness. (default 10m0s)

Image arguments

These arguments are available on some target based commands. They control image versions requested by images.get_image(...) calls .

Image arguments:
  Control fixed images and update behaviour.

  -F, --fixed-image stringArray          Pin an image to a given version. Expects
                                         '--fixed-image=image<:namespace:deployment:container>=result'
      --fixed-images-file existingfile   Use .yaml file to pin image versions. See output of list-images
                                         sub-command or read the documentation for details about the output format
      --offline-images                   Omit contacting image registries and do not query for latest image tags.
  -u, --update-images                    This causes kluctl to prefer the latest image found in registries, based
                                         on the 'latest_image' filters provided to 'images.get_image(...)' calls.
                                         Use this flag if you want to update to the latest versions/tags of all
                                         images. '-u' takes precedence over '--fixed-image/--fixed-images-file',
                                         meaning that the latest images are used even if an older image is given
                                         via fixed images.

Inclusion/Exclusion arguments

These arguments are available for some target based commands. They control inclusion/exclusion based on tags and deployment item pathes.

Inclusion/Exclusion arguments:
  Control inclusion/exclusion.

      --exclude-deployment-dir stringArray   Exclude deployment dir. The path must be relative to the root
                                             deployment project. Exclusion has precedence over inclusion, same as
                                             in --exclude-tag
  -E, --exclude-tag stringArray              Exclude deployments with given tag. Exclusion has precedence over
                                             inclusion, meaning that explicitly excluded deployments will always
                                             be excluded even if an inclusion rule would match the same deployment.
      --include-deployment-dir stringArray   Include deployment dir. The path must be relative to the root
                                             deployment project.
  -I, --include-tag stringArray              Include deployments with given tag.

6.4.2 - Environment Variables

Controlling Kluctl via environment variables

In addition to arguments, Kluctl can be controlled via a set of environment variables.

Environment variables as arguments

All options/arguments accepted by kluctl can also be specified via environment variables. The name of the environment variables always start with KLUCTL_ and end with the option/argument in uppercase and dashes replaced with underscores. As an example, --dry-run can also be specified with the environment variable KLUCTL_DRY_RUN=true.

If an argument needs to be specified multiple times through environment variables, indexed can be appended to the names of the environment variables, e.g. KLUCTL_ARG_0=name1=value1 and KLUCTL_ARG_1=name2=value2.

Additional environment variables

A few additional environment variables are supported which do not belong to an option/argument. These are:

  1. KLUCTL_REGISTRY_<idx>_HOST, KLUCTL_REGISTRY_<idx>_USERNAME, and so on. See registries for details.
  2. KLUCTL_GIT_<idx>_HOST, KLUCTL_GIT_<idx>_USERNAME, and so on.
  3. KLUCTL_SSH_DISABLE_STRICT_HOST_KEY_CHECKING. Disable ssh host key checking when accessing git repositories.

6.4.3 - delete

delete command

Command

Usage: kluctl delete [flags]

Delete a target (or parts of it) from the corresponding cluster Objects are located based on ‘commonLabels’, configured in ‘deployment.yaml’

WARNING: This command will also delete objects which are not part of your deployment project (anymore). It really only decides based on the ‘deleteByLabel’ labels and does NOT take the local target/state into account!

Arguments

The following sets of arguments are available:

  1. project arguments
  2. image arguments
  3. inclusion/exclusion arguments

In addition, the following arguments are available:

Misc arguments:
  Command specific arguments.

  -l, --delete-by-label stringArray                 Override the labels used to find objects for deletion.
      --dry-run                                     Performs all kubernetes API calls in dry-run mode.
      --helm-insecure-skip-tls-verify stringArray   Controls skipping of TLS verification. Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-insecure-skip-tls-verify=<credentialsId>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-key-file stringArray                   Specify client certificate to use for Helm Repository
                                                    authentication. Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-key-file=<credentialsId>:<path>, where <credentialsId>
                                                    must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-password stringArray                   Specify password to use for Helm Repository authentication.
                                                    Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-password=<credentialsId>:<password>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-username stringArray                   Specify username to use for Helm Repository authentication.
                                                    Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-username=<credentialsId>:<username>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --no-obfuscate                                Disable obfuscation of sensitive/secret data
  -o, --output-format stringArray                   Specify output format and target file, in the format
                                                    'format=path'. Format can either be 'text' or 'yaml'. Can be
                                                    specified multiple times. The actual format for yaml is
                                                    currently not documented and subject to change.
      --render-output-dir string                    Specifies the target directory to render the project into. If
                                                    omitted, a temporary directory is used.
  -y, --yes                                         Suppresses 'Are you sure?' questions and proceeds as if you
                                                    would answer 'yes'.

They have the same meaning as described in deploy .

6.4.4 - deploy

deploy command

Command

Usage: kluctl deploy [flags]

Deploys a target to the corresponding cluster This command will also output a diff between the initial state and the state after deployment. The format of this diff is the same as for the ‘diff’ command. It will also output a list of prunable objects (without actually deleting them).

Arguments

The following sets of arguments are available:

  1. project arguments
  2. image arguments
  3. inclusion/exclusion arguments

In addition, the following arguments are available:

Misc arguments:
  Command specific arguments.

      --abort-on-error                              Abort deploying when an error occurs instead of trying the
                                                    remaining deployments
      --dry-run                                     Performs all kubernetes API calls in dry-run mode.
      --force-apply                                 Force conflict resolution when applying. See documentation for
                                                    details
      --force-replace-on-error                      Same as --replace-on-error, but also try to delete and
                                                    re-create objects. See documentation for more details.
      --helm-insecure-skip-tls-verify stringArray   Controls skipping of TLS verification. Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-insecure-skip-tls-verify=<credentialsId>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-key-file stringArray                   Specify client certificate to use for Helm Repository
                                                    authentication. Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-key-file=<credentialsId>:<path>, where <credentialsId>
                                                    must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-password stringArray                   Specify password to use for Helm Repository authentication.
                                                    Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-password=<credentialsId>:<password>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-username stringArray                   Specify username to use for Helm Repository authentication.
                                                    Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-username=<credentialsId>:<username>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --no-obfuscate                                Disable obfuscation of sensitive/secret data
      --no-wait                                     Don't wait for objects readiness'
  -o, --output-format stringArray                   Specify output format and target file, in the format
                                                    'format=path'. Format can either be 'text' or 'yaml'. Can be
                                                    specified multiple times. The actual format for yaml is
                                                    currently not documented and subject to change.
      --readiness-timeout duration                  Maximum time to wait for object readiness. The timeout is
                                                    meant per-object. Timeouts are in the duration format (1s, 1m,
                                                    1h, ...). If not specified, a default timeout of 5m is used.
                                                    (default 5m0s)
      --render-output-dir string                    Specifies the target directory to render the project into. If
                                                    omitted, a temporary directory is used.
      --replace-on-error                            When patching an object fails, try to replace it. See
                                                    documentation for more details.
  -y, --yes                                         Suppresses 'Are you sure?' questions and proceeds as if you
                                                    would answer 'yes'.

–force-apply

kluctl implements deployments via server-side apply and a custom automatic conflict resolution algorithm. This algurithm is an automatic implementation of the “ Don’t overwrite value, give up management claim ” method. It should work in most cases, but might still fail. In case of such failure, you can use --force-apply to use the “Overwrite value, become sole manager” strategy instead.

Please note that this is a risky operation which might overwrite fields which were initially managed by kluctl but were then overtaken by other managers (e.g. by operators). Always use this option with caution and perform a dry-run before to ensure nothing unexpected gets overwritten.

–replace-on-error

In some situations, patching Kubernetes objects might fail for different reasons. In such cases, you can try --replace-on-error to instruct kluctl to retry with an update operation.

Please note that this will cause all fields to be overwritten, even if owned by other field managers.

–force-replace-on-error

This flag will cause the same replacement attempt on failure as with --replace-on-error. In addition, it will fallback to a delete+recreate operation in case the replace also fails.

Please note that this is a potentially risky operation, especially when an object carries some kind of important state.

–abort-on-error

kluctl does not abort a command when an individual object fails can not be updated. It collects all errors and warnings and outputs them instead. This option modifies the behaviour to immediately abort the command.

6.4.5 - diff

diff command

Command

Usage: kluctl diff [flags]

Perform a diff between the locally rendered target and the already deployed target The output is by default in human readable form (a table combined with unified diffs). The output can also be changed to output a yaml file. Please note however that the format is currently not documented and prone to changes. After the diff is performed, the command will also search for prunable objects and list them.

Arguments

The following sets of arguments are available:

  1. project arguments
  2. image arguments
  3. inclusion/exclusion arguments

In addition, the following arguments are available:

Misc arguments:
  Command specific arguments.

      --force-apply                                 Force conflict resolution when applying. See documentation for
                                                    details
      --force-replace-on-error                      Same as --replace-on-error, but also try to delete and
                                                    re-create objects. See documentation for more details.
      --helm-insecure-skip-tls-verify stringArray   Controls skipping of TLS verification. Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-insecure-skip-tls-verify=<credentialsId>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-key-file stringArray                   Specify client certificate to use for Helm Repository
                                                    authentication. Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-key-file=<credentialsId>:<path>, where <credentialsId>
                                                    must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-password stringArray                   Specify password to use for Helm Repository authentication.
                                                    Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-password=<credentialsId>:<password>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-username stringArray                   Specify username to use for Helm Repository authentication.
                                                    Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-username=<credentialsId>:<username>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --ignore-annotations                          Ignores changes in annotations when diffing
      --ignore-labels                               Ignores changes in labels when diffing
      --ignore-tags                                 Ignores changes in tags when diffing
      --no-obfuscate                                Disable obfuscation of sensitive/secret data
  -o, --output-format stringArray                   Specify output format and target file, in the format
                                                    'format=path'. Format can either be 'text' or 'yaml'. Can be
                                                    specified multiple times. The actual format for yaml is
                                                    currently not documented and subject to change.
      --render-output-dir string                    Specifies the target directory to render the project into. If
                                                    omitted, a temporary directory is used.
      --replace-on-error                            When patching an object fails, try to replace it. See
                                                    documentation for more details.

--force-apply and --replace-on-error have the same meaning as in deploy .

6.4.6 - helm-pull

helm-pull command

Command

Usage: kluctl helm-pull [flags]

Recursively searches for ‘helm-chart.yaml’ files and pulls the specified Helm charts The Helm charts are stored under the sub-directory ‘charts/’ next to the ‘helm-chart.yaml’. These Helm charts are meant to be added to version control so that pulling is only needed when really required (e.g. when the chart version changes).

See helm-integration for more details.

Arguments

The following sets of arguments are available:

  1. project arguments (except -a)

6.4.7 - helm-update

helm-update command

Command

Usage: kluctl helm-update [flags]

Recursively searches for ‘helm-chart.yaml’ files and checks for new available versions Optionally performs the actual upgrade and/or add a commit to version control.

Arguments

The following sets of arguments are available:

  1. project arguments (except -a)

In addition, the following arguments are available:

Misc arguments:
  Command specific arguments.

      --commit                                      Create a git commit for every updated chart
      --helm-insecure-skip-tls-verify stringArray   Controls skipping of TLS verification. Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-insecure-skip-tls-verify=<credentialsId>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-key-file stringArray                   Specify client certificate to use for Helm Repository
                                                    authentication. Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-key-file=<credentialsId>:<path>, where <credentialsId>
                                                    must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-password stringArray                   Specify password to use for Helm Repository authentication.
                                                    Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-password=<credentialsId>:<password>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-username stringArray                   Specify username to use for Helm Repository authentication.
                                                    Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-username=<credentialsId>:<username>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
  -i, --interactive                                 Ask for every Helm Chart if it should be upgraded.
      --upgrade                                     Write new versions into helm-chart.yaml and perform helm-pull
                                                    afterwards

6.4.8 - list-images

list-images command

Command

Usage: kluctl list-images [flags]

Renders the target and outputs all images used via ‘images.get_image(…) The result is a compatible with yaml files expected by –fixed-images-file.

If fixed images (’-f/–fixed-image’) are provided, these are also taken into account, as described in the deploy command.

Arguments

The following sets of arguments are available:

  1. project arguments
  2. image arguments
  3. inclusion/exclusion arguments

In addition, the following arguments are available:

Misc arguments:
  Command specific arguments.

      --helm-insecure-skip-tls-verify stringArray   Controls skipping of TLS verification. Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-insecure-skip-tls-verify=<credentialsId>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-key-file stringArray                   Specify client certificate to use for Helm Repository
                                                    authentication. Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-key-file=<credentialsId>:<path>, where <credentialsId>
                                                    must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-password stringArray                   Specify password to use for Helm Repository authentication.
                                                    Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-password=<credentialsId>:<password>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-username stringArray                   Specify username to use for Helm Repository authentication.
                                                    Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-username=<credentialsId>:<username>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --kubernetes-version string                   Specify the Kubernetes version that will be assumed. This will
                                                    also override the kubeVersion used when rendering Helm Charts.
      --offline-kubernetes                          Run command in offline mode, meaning that it will not try to
                                                    connect the target cluster
  -o, --output stringArray                          Specify output target file. Can be specified multiple times
      --render-output-dir string                    Specifies the target directory to render the project into. If
                                                    omitted, a temporary directory is used.
      --simple                                      Output a simplified version of the images list

6.4.9 - list-targets

list-targets command

Command

Usage: kluctl list-targets [flags]

Outputs a yaml list with all target, including dynamic targets Outputs a yaml list with all target, including dynamic targets

Arguments

The following arguments are available:

Misc arguments:
  Command specific arguments.

  -o, --output stringArray   Specify output target file. Can be specified multiple times

6.4.10 - poke-images

poke-images command

Command

Usage: kluctl poke-images [flags]

Replace all images in target This command will fully render the target and then only replace images instead of fully deploying the target. Only images used in combination with ‘images.get_image(…)’ are replaced

Arguments

The following sets of arguments are available:

  1. project arguments
  2. image arguments
  3. inclusion/exclusion arguments

In addition, the following arguments are available:

Misc arguments:
  Command specific arguments.

      --dry-run                                     Performs all kubernetes API calls in dry-run mode.
      --helm-insecure-skip-tls-verify stringArray   Controls skipping of TLS verification. Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-insecure-skip-tls-verify=<credentialsId>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-key-file stringArray                   Specify client certificate to use for Helm Repository
                                                    authentication. Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-key-file=<credentialsId>:<path>, where <credentialsId>
                                                    must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-password stringArray                   Specify password to use for Helm Repository authentication.
                                                    Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-password=<credentialsId>:<password>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-username stringArray                   Specify username to use for Helm Repository authentication.
                                                    Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-username=<credentialsId>:<username>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --no-obfuscate                                Disable obfuscation of sensitive/secret data
  -o, --output-format stringArray                   Specify output format and target file, in the format
                                                    'format=path'. Format can either be 'text' or 'yaml'. Can be
                                                    specified multiple times. The actual format for yaml is
                                                    currently not documented and subject to change.
      --render-output-dir string                    Specifies the target directory to render the project into. If
                                                    omitted, a temporary directory is used.
  -y, --yes                                         Suppresses 'Are you sure?' questions and proceeds as if you
                                                    would answer 'yes'.

6.4.11 - prune

prune command

Command

Usage: kluctl prune [flags]

Searches the target cluster for prunable objects and deletes them

Arguments

The following sets of arguments are available:

  1. project arguments
  2. image arguments
  3. inclusion/exclusion arguments

In addition, the following arguments are available:

Misc arguments:
  Command specific arguments.

      --dry-run                                     Performs all kubernetes API calls in dry-run mode.
      --helm-insecure-skip-tls-verify stringArray   Controls skipping of TLS verification. Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-insecure-skip-tls-verify=<credentialsId>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-key-file stringArray                   Specify client certificate to use for Helm Repository
                                                    authentication. Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-key-file=<credentialsId>:<path>, where <credentialsId>
                                                    must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-password stringArray                   Specify password to use for Helm Repository authentication.
                                                    Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-password=<credentialsId>:<password>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-username stringArray                   Specify username to use for Helm Repository authentication.
                                                    Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-username=<credentialsId>:<username>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --no-obfuscate                                Disable obfuscation of sensitive/secret data
  -o, --output-format stringArray                   Specify output format and target file, in the format
                                                    'format=path'. Format can either be 'text' or 'yaml'. Can be
                                                    specified multiple times. The actual format for yaml is
                                                    currently not documented and subject to change.
      --render-output-dir string                    Specifies the target directory to render the project into. If
                                                    omitted, a temporary directory is used.
  -y, --yes                                         Suppresses 'Are you sure?' questions and proceeds as if you
                                                    would answer 'yes'.

They have the same meaning as described in deploy .

6.4.12 - render

render command

Command

Usage: kluctl render [flags]

Renders all resources and configuration files Renders all resources and configuration files and stores the result in either a temporary directory or a specified directory.

Arguments

The following sets of arguments are available:

  1. project arguments
  2. image arguments
  3. inclusion/exclusion arguments

In addition, the following arguments are available:

Misc arguments:
  Command specific arguments.

      --helm-insecure-skip-tls-verify stringArray   Controls skipping of TLS verification. Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-insecure-skip-tls-verify=<credentialsId>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-key-file stringArray                   Specify client certificate to use for Helm Repository
                                                    authentication. Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-key-file=<credentialsId>:<path>, where <credentialsId>
                                                    must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-password stringArray                   Specify password to use for Helm Repository authentication.
                                                    Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-password=<credentialsId>:<password>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-username stringArray                   Specify username to use for Helm Repository authentication.
                                                    Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-username=<credentialsId>:<username>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --kubernetes-version string                   Specify the Kubernetes version that will be assumed. This will
                                                    also override the kubeVersion used when rendering Helm Charts.
      --offline-kubernetes                          Run command in offline mode, meaning that it will not try to
                                                    connect the target cluster
      --print-all                                   Write all rendered manifests to stdout
      --render-output-dir string                    Specifies the target directory to render the project into. If
                                                    omitted, a temporary directory is used.

6.4.13 - validate

validate command

Command

Usage: kluctl validate [flags]

Validates the already deployed deployment This means that all objects are retrieved from the cluster and checked for readiness.

TODO: This needs to be better documented!

Arguments

The following sets of arguments are available:

  1. project arguments
  2. image arguments

In addition, the following arguments are available:

Misc arguments:
  Command specific arguments.

      --helm-insecure-skip-tls-verify stringArray   Controls skipping of TLS verification. Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-insecure-skip-tls-verify=<credentialsId>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-key-file stringArray                   Specify client certificate to use for Helm Repository
                                                    authentication. Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-key-file=<credentialsId>:<path>, where <credentialsId>
                                                    must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-password stringArray                   Specify password to use for Helm Repository authentication.
                                                    Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-password=<credentialsId>:<password>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
      --helm-username stringArray                   Specify username to use for Helm Repository authentication.
                                                    Must be in the form
                                                    --helm-username=<credentialsId>:<username>, where
                                                    <credentialsId> must match the id specified in the helm-chart.yaml.
  -o, --output stringArray                          Specify output target file. Can be specified multiple times
      --render-output-dir string                    Specifies the target directory to render the project into. If
                                                    omitted, a temporary directory is used.
      --sleep duration                              Sleep duration between validation attempts (default 5s)
      --wait duration                               Wait for the given amount of time until the deployment validates
      --warnings-as-errors                          Consider warnings as failures